Articles

Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Mutaa) and Ocimum gratissimum (Mukandu) from Makueni County, Kenya

Lukenya University Multidisciplinary Journal (LUMJ), 1 (4), pp. 257-265, 2020, ISSN: 2663-3163.

Authors

By: Judith Adikinyi Wafula; Bernard Kivyatu; Sammy Muvelah

Abstract

A comparative analysis of the composition of two species of Ocimum found in Makueni County, Kenya was undertaken. These were Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Mutaa) and Ocimum gratissimum (Mukandu). They are locally known by the names, Mutaa and Mukandu respectively. The Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum gratissimum were analysed qualitatively for the presence of minerals and phytochemicals. The phytochemicals analysed include reducing sugars, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. The possible health benefits of the Ocimum species from Kenya were determined in view of the composition. Addition of a drop of aqueous sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide till in excess, to test for minerals present showed no precipitate. The Fehlings’ test for reducing sugars using 1ml Fehling’s solution No.1 added to 0.5ml of extract gave a green solution with a brown precipitate at the bottom. The precipitate was more for O. gratissimum than O. kilimansdcharicum. The biuret test for proteins was negative. A Wagner test (dilute iodine) for alkaloids gave a red-brown precipitate. Tannins/phenols were analysed using Ferric chloride. A dark green-black precipitate was formed. An orange solution was formed in the flavanoid test using Magnesium metal and dilute hydrochloric acid. Salkowski test for terpenoids using 2ml chloroform with 3ml concentrated sulphuric acid was done. Red –brown upper layer and lower layer with a colourless interface between was observed in O. kilimandscharicum. Similar observations were made in O. gratissimum with a pink lower layer and a red-brown top layer. The test for anthraquinones gave a brick-red layer at the bottom of the test tube with a black ring at the top. The brick red layer was slightly darker for sample B (Mukandu) compared to sample A (Mutaa). In conclusion, the findings suggest the absence of proteins in both species of Ocimum. They point to the presence of calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium and sodium minerals as confirmed by the flame test. Further, both species of Ocimum studied contain reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, flavanoids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. Variation in quantities of phytochemicals and minerals is suggested by the differences in colour intensities. In view of the findings Ocimum species in Kenya present great opportunities in the health sector that need to be explored. The phytochemical and minerals play significant roles in fighting microbes and ensuring a healthy body. A quantitative determination of the phytochemicals and minerals is required using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Atomic Emission Spectrometry (AES) or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) to determine the difference in the quantities between the two species. Further, isolation of active ingredients remains a great need.

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Assessment of Information Literacy Skills of Undergraduate Medical Students in Selected Public Universities in Kenya

Lukenya University Multidisciplinary Journal (LUMJ), 1 (4), pp. 241-256, 2020, ISSN: 2663-3163.

Authors

By: Victor Koech; Dr. Chao Mbogo

Abstract

This study was conceived with the aim of investigating information literacy skills (ILS) of medical undergraduate students in selected public universities in Kenya, with a view of proposing a framework to enhance delivery and utilisation of the information literacy skills in institutions of higher learning. Baro (2013) assert that for a medical practitioner or student to derive maximum benefits from information he/she must possess information literacy skills. However, literature reveals that in Kenya, there is no national policy on ILS. Information literacy skills-related training is an individual institutional matter. Further, medical practitioners prefer using human sources instead of online databases or print sources that are readily available because of low information literacy skills. In this line, most medical students do not know how to refine search strategies, lack of skills on how to deal with information explosion and on appropriate use to avoid plagiarizing published scientific work. Majority of learners do not know how to evaluate the credibility of online information sources and the teaching of ILS is inadequate. The objectives of the study were to: Examine the status of information literacy skills offered to medical undergraduate students at University of Nairobi and Moi University and ascertain the usefulness of these skills; examine the information literacy skills curriculum and assess the methods used in delivering the programme to undergraduate medical students in the two universities; analyze the adequacy of policies and regulations supporting information skills literacy programmes in the two institutions; determine the perceptions of undergraduate medical undergraduate students towards ILS; assess knowledge, skills and training possessed by staff engaged in facilitating ILS among medical undergraduate students; examine the role of ICT in facilitating and promoting information literacy skills among medical undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi and Moi University; and find out the challenges in ILS delivery and develop a framework to enhance ILS among medical undergraduate students in the University of Nairobi and Moi University. The study was guided by both the Sauce Model as developed by Bond (2009) and the Six Frames of Information Literacy Education Model as developed by Bruce, Edwards & Lupton, (2015). The study utilized the pragmatic research paradigm with mixed method approach. Additionally, multiple case design and convergent parallel design were adopted in data collection.

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Exploring the Psychosocial Effects of Obstetric Fistula among Women in Kenya

Lukenya University Multidisciplinary Journal (LUMJ), 1 (4), pp. 226-233, 2020, ISSN: 2663-3163.

Authors

By:Kosgey L; Mbogo C; Munene D

Abstract

People are becoming increasingly dependable on their phones to accomplish day to day activities, such as getting information and money transfer. Yet, smartphones hold a lot of personal information that can cause tremendous effect on user privacy and security, if exposed. Consequently, there is a need to understand users’ awareness and behavior when using their mobile phones. Unfortunately, most smartphone users in Kenya lack a proper mobile awareness model which can be used to raise and maintain awareness about information security. This study explored the awareness level of 393 Kenyan smartphone users on information security threats that face them and the behavioural choices that leaves them vulnerable. An online structured survey was used to investigate the relationship between the behavior of Kenyan smartphone users and awareness of information security practices. The results showed that users are aware of smartphone threats yet they continue to make wrong choices that leaves them vulnerable to attacks. An awareness model might improve security awareness and hence reduce the amount of risk associated with use of smartphones.

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Comparison of the Elemental Patterns of Beef and Vegetable Meals with Chicken Meals, and the Apple Effect

Lukenya University Multidisciplinary Journal (LUMJ), 1 (4), pp. 205-214, 2020, ISSN: 2663-3163.

Authors

By:Judith Adikinyi Khamoni

Abstract

This paper compares the elemental content of meals that were categorized as vegetable, beef and chicken based for 4-6, 7+ and 10+ months sold on the market. In one category, the chicken based meals contain apple while the other is free from apple. A summary of the trace elements and minerals for which each meal category shows higher levels in contrast to the rest was determined. This follows a previous study by the researcher where ICP-AES and ICP-MS were used to determine the levels of trace elements and minerals. The trace elements namely: cadmium (Cd), copper(Cu), iron(Fe), lead(Pb), manganese(Mn), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se) and zinc(Zn) and minerals: calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), phosphorous(P), potassium(K) and sodium(Na) in a brand of baby food were analysed. The findings showed that levels of the trace elements and minerals in the foods were below the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). In this paper, an analysis of the trace elements and minerals for which each meal category shows higher levels in contrast to the rest indicated that vegetable based foods (W1, X1 and Y1) were richer in Ca, Na and Zn compared to the other categories of meals. Similarly, chicken based foods (W2, X2, Y2) had higher values in Cd, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P and Se in relation to the rest. The beef based meals (W4, X4, Y4) were higher in Cu, Fe and Pb. However, synergistic and antagonistic interactions were suggested whereby, chicken based meals with added apple (W3, X3, Y3) were lower in Cd, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P and Se compared to those without added apple (W2, X2, Y2). On the other hand, the levels of Cu, Fe and Pb in the chicken meals containing apple were higher than in the meals without apple and surpassed levels in the beef meals. These findings emphasize the role of synergistic and antagonistic interactions depending on the composition of the meals in determining the level of trace elements and minerals. It is recommended that manufacturers consider these interactions in declaring nutrient levels. The same level of nutrients found in beef can be achieved using different food ingredients. Commercial baby food manufacturers should explore this to facilitate in developing foods for infants that may be reactive to beef based foods. Further research is recommended to examine the interactions in the chicken meals with and without apple.

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Propagation Abilities of an Overused Clerodendrum Plant Species from Garissa and Tana-River Counties

Lukenya University Multidisciplinary Journal (LUMJ), 1 (4), pp. 197-204, 2020, ISSN: 2663-3163.

Authors

By:Rashid W. Musa; Ahmed Mohammed; Hussein S.A. Golicha; Mohammed H. Omar

Abstract

The use of plants in herbal medicine is as old as humankind. In Africa and Kenya in particular, plants' ethnomedical information and the diseases they treat have been orally passed on from one generation to the other. The increasing human population, inappropriate harvesting methods, lengthy and recurrent droughts, and overuse of plants as medicines, fodder, and firewood compounded by limited natural regeneration threaten the existence of these important plant species warranting urgent intervention. Furthermore, the high costs, insufficiency, and inaccessibility to modern medicine have forced over a million rural community members in Tana River and Garissa Counties to use Clerodendrum rupicola synonym Rotheca rupicola (Verde) Verde (Tiire/Harmale – Somali and Marasisa – Boran languages) to treat various ailments. Considering these challenges, this study documents the propagation abilities of Clerodendrum rupicola from big and small stem and root cuttings. Half of the cuttings were treated with Anatome rooting hormone, while the other half were planted without hormones in a randomized complete block design at the Garissa University Memorial Botanical Garden. Germination percentage, number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were observed for two months. The results showed that 57% and 50% respectively of the big stems that were treated with rooting hormone and those without the hormone sprouted. Moreover, 50% of small stems with or without rooting hormone sprouted. The roots recorded the lowest germination percentage of 6%. The results suggest that the stems of the C. rupicola have a higher propagative ability than the roots. Though the small stem were able to sprout, the study shows that big stems are the most appropriate for propagation with or without hormone.

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